In the final period of his life, Julius Caesar was preparing for the implementation of several ambitious plans. To a large extent, these were only beautiful dreams, because having regard to the political realities and possibilities that existed at that time, he could not count on them to be finally realized.
We know them thanks to the accounts of Plutarch (46 – about 120 CE), the great Greek philosopher and writer, from his biography of Julius Caesar.
In his plans, Caesar had a great campaign to Parthia. The expedition was to take three years. Earlier, Caesar intended to attack Dacia (under King Burebista), who threatened Macedonia. After pacifying Dacians, Roman troops were to invade the Parthia through Armenia. After defeating the eastern neighbour and using its wealth to finance further operations, Caesar wanted to march along the Black Sea, then to reach Hyrcania (today’s lands of northern Iran), lying next to the Caspian Sea. He wanted to reach the Caucasus and then invade the Scythia.
Then Caesar wanted to conquer all the peoples on the border between Gaul and Germania, and then join the Germania. In this way, Caesar would conquer practically all the then-known world and hoped that the Roman state would be surrounded on all sides by the Ocean and would not be threatened by any external threat.
Another important project was the plan to dig a channel through the Corinthian Isthmus, which he wanted to commission from the Athenians. Caesar also wanted to deepen the Tiber and change the course of the river so that he would head towards Circeia and then go out to the sea near Terracina. In this way, he wanted to secure the merchant ships a safe passage to Rome.
Julius Caesar also wanted to drain the swamps near the cities of Pometia and Setianote, and this area should be used for cultivation for thousands of people.
The plans also included the idea of building large breakwaters along the Italian coast, at the height of Rome, to eliminate the danger of sailing when reaching the harbour in Ostia. The harbour was to receive new marinas, large enough to accommodate large ships.
Caesar’s death in 44 BCE, however, crossed out these plans.