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Articles (Politics and events)

The Roman state existed in practice for XIII centuries, being the power which was impacting the history. Therefore, I decided that I would tell the history of ancient Rome in the articles below, which will not necessarily cover only the Eternal City.

I encourage you to send articles and point out any corrections or inaccuracies.

Secessio plebis

Ancient Rome from the beginning of its existence consisted of two social layers – patricians and plebeians; higher and lower state respectively. Lack of influence on state decisions and the use of plebe by patricians led to the so-called secessio plebis that took place five times in Rome’s history.

B. Barloccini, Plebeian Secession

Roman triumvirates

In ancient Rome, the term “triumvirate” (from trium viri – “three men”) was used to describe a college made up of three officials elected to perform certain tasks. Two such meetings have gone down in the history of Rome. Both took place during the so-called crisis of the Roman republic and decided about the division of power between influential politicians. In fact, these were agreements bypassing the senate, which was losing its prerogatives.

Three influential politicians: Pompey, Crassus and Caesar 

Catilinarian conspiracy

In the years 67–62 BCE, when the Pompey gained great fame by conquering and looting in the East, Marcus Crassus took advantage of his absence in Rome by manipulating the clientele and using all means to gain primacy in political life.

Cesare Maccari, Cicero Denounces Catiline

Roman war fleet

The construction of the ship began with the construction of the hull plating from boards, usually pine. Then a light skeleton was placed inside and the whole structure was reinforced with thick ropes. Boards were connected with specially hewn pins or grooves, practically no nails or other metal fasteners were used.

Clash of the roman fleet | Photo: Giuseppe Rava from Osprey's book, The  Ships of Republican Rome

Roman Empire at time of its greatest prosperity

The Roman Empire, developing from the 3rd century BCE to the 5th century CE, was one of the few in ancient history that covered such a huge area. It is also sometimes called a world state for this reason. In the first and second centuries, the Romans ruled huge areas around the Mediterranean Sea. This huge state can only be compared with the Chinese state during the Han dynasty (202 BCE 220 CE) and the former state of Emperor Szy-Huang-Ti.

Map of the Roman Empire after the conquest of Nabatea

Caesar crossing the Rubicon

In 50 BCE, the Senate dominated by Pompey the Great ordered Julius Caesar to return to Rome, dissolve his army, and forbade him to run for the second consulate. These activities were clearly dictated by the desire to diminish the political and military role of Caesar.

Julius Caesar

Year of the Four Emperors

The despotism of Nero caused growing dissatisfaction. The reign of Nero stuck in the consciousness of his people today as a period of exceptional decline in morality, the oppression of society, and the eccentric pranks of the emperor. From a person sensitive to beauty, poetry, theater, he became a vain lust.

Rivals to imperial power: Vitellius, Otho, Vespasian and Galba

Year of the Five Emperors

Year 193 CE is known in the history of ancient Rome as The Year of Five Emperors, because during these 365 days as many as five claimants claimed the throne. This year also brought the fall of the current Antonin dynasty (96 – 192 CE) and the beginning of the four-year period of civil wars (193 – 197 CE), which eventually ended with the victory of Septimius Severus.

Year of the Five Emperors

Vision of Constantine before the battle of the Milvian Bridge

According to ancient sources, on the evening of October 27, 312 CE, just before the battle at the Milvian Bridge, Constantine the Great was to have a vision that led him to victory with the support of a Christian god. Historical sources, however, are not consistent and differ on certain issues as to the so-called “miracle of Constantine”.

Jacopo Vignali, The Appearance of the Cross to Constantine

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