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Roman army during the time of Emperor Vitellius 69 CE | Picture by Nicholas Subkov
Military service – holy, military oath of loyalty in Roman legions, sometimes annually; Sacramentum (under the eagle) – on active duty; Sub aquila – looked after; Sub cura (in line with the standards) in military service; Sub signis (under the flag) – the veteran was required to serve in lighter duty; Sub vexillo – soldier on active duty; Subsignanus miles (regulations of service) – several rules of the military Constitutio Constitutiones that were formulated by the emperors, from Augustus to Hadrian; – secondment camp, camp; Statio (beneficiary) – either (1) a soldier with special powers, or (2) military police; Beneficiarius – soldier attached to the provincial governor’s staff; Beneficiarius consularis – the soldier assigned to the commander’s staff; Beneficiarius legati legionis – a soldier serving in the headquarters of the praetorian prefect; Beneficiarius praefecti praetorio – a soldier serving in the headquarters of the city prefect; Beneficiarius praefecti Urbis – a soldier serving in the proxy’s staff; Beneficiarius procuratoris – a soldier serving on the staff of a governor appointed by the senate; Beneficiarius praefecti proconsulis – a soldier appointed for six months as Beneficiarius sexmestris beneficiarius; – a soldier attached to the staff of the military tribune; Beneficiarius tribuni – a soldier selected to serve in another unit. Collatus Recruitment – recruiting officer; Conquisitor – recruit; Tiro – colleague recruit; Contiro – a potential recruit who cut off his thumb to escape from military service; Murcus – registration (recruitment) document; Probatoria – recruiter considered fit for service; Probatus – identification disc, worn by recruits; Signaculum (youth) – the legionary’s offspring, who followed in their father’s footsteps, and therefore received their rights before entering service (4th century CE); Adcrescens (travelling money) – money spent on a recruit during the initial training period; Wiatyk – first recruit campaign. Tirocinium Roman soldiers (soldier) – each soldier had two weapons: Legionary gladius (sword) and pilum (javelin); – soldier with Gaesatus gaesum (iron spear); – soldier with Lanciarius lancea (javelin); (reservist) – light infantry soldier; Accensus (javelin thrower) – light infantry; Akontistes – Auxiliaris auxilia soldier; – artilleryman responsible for the ballista; Ballistarius (warrior) – soldier, warrior; Bellator – soldier assigned to Burgarius burgus; – soldier belonging to the cohort; Cohortalis – member of the same unit; Collega – a soldier belonging to the later Roman army; Comitatensis – friend in arms, colleague; Commanipularis – recruit; Discens – either (1), Republican Light Armored Legionary, (2) Republican Legionary Repeller, (3) Republican Light Horseman, or (4) Military Servant; Ferentarius ( Gregalis Gregarius) (private) – regular soldier; – heavy-armed soldier; Hoplites – regular soldier; Miles – soldier belonging to the cohort; Miles cohortis (great soldier) – braggart soldier; Miles gloriosus ( Miles Gregarius Miles gregalis) – regular soldier; – a soldier belonging to a legion, a legionary; Miles legionis – soldier; Milex – Heavy infantry soldier serving in manipulation; Manipularis – infantry; Pedatura – infantry; Peditatus – infantry; Pedés – a soldier with a larger shield; Scutatus – basic wage soldier; Simplaris (Tertiary) – heavy infantry soldier; Triarius – lightly armoured legionaries; Velites ( Volones Volonum) – liberated slaves who enlisted in the army. Military specialists ( Agaso Strator) – orderly; – assistant, orderly; Adiutor – archer; Arcuarius – translator; Interpres – bodyguard, orderly. Secutor Military officials – document officer; Ab Actis – clerk; Actarius – scribe; Scriba – assistant, orderly; Adiutor – assistant; Libraria Advisor – procurement officer; Cibariator – accountant; Exactus – secretary; Excerptor – official responsible for the archive; Librarius – secretary. Notarius Military servants – military servant, henchman; Lixa – servant, groom; Baro – servant; Cacula – groom, servant; Calo – servant. Galearius
Sander van Dorst, Glossary
Ireneusz A. Łuć, Boni et mali milites Romani. Relacje między żołnierzami wojsk rzymskich w okresie Wczesnego Cesarstwa, Kraków 2010
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