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Roman emperors

This post is also available in: Polish (polski)

Busts of the emperors of Rome
Busts of the emperors of Rome; from the left: Marcus Aurelius, Trajan, Octavian Augustus, Vespasian, Septimius Sever.

Throughout the whole imperial period of ancient Rome, i.e. from 27 BCE to 476 CE, the country was ruled by many emperors. When it comes to four great Roman dynasties we do not have any problems with establishing the chronological order of their rules.

However, the problems begin with a death of the last member of the Severan dynasty (Alexander Severus) in 235 CE. Then Rome was hit by a crisis. The Empire suffered a plague and incursions of foreign armies. Moreover, the country was torn by infighting and civil wars. Ambitious commanders were being proclaimed emperors en masse – either by the army or themselves. They were in control of dominions but did not recognize the emperor in Rome. They were usurpers, there were plenty of them – I am going to successfully complete the table with information about them. I have marked them with the red color. “Caesars”, on the other hand, so the potential successors, I have marked with the green color. The table is not complete but it is because of the complexity of the late Empire history. Therefore the exact hierarchization of the ruling emperors (both those legally chosen and those self-proclaimed) is really difficult.

In 395 CE the Roman Empire was officially divided into two parts: eastern and western. I am going to focus on the emperors ruling over the western half although I do not say that I would not add also the emperors ruling over the eastern as well (to 476 CE) in the future. Then, I believe, it would be possible to maintain both chronological and historical order.

Some people consider Julius Caesar to be the first emperor but this is a misassumption. Caesar, after defeating Pompey in the Civil War, appointed himself dictator, but he did not become an emperor. Although he actually did rule and was the most important person in the whole country, he did not proclaim himself an emperor (or he did not make it) as he was afraid of unrest among the society) which was still rather against monocracy after dozens of years of monarchy. Caesar managed to skip this delicate matter with the position of the dictator in perpetuity. Eventually, Caesar, pursuing limiting Senate’s power, died assassinated by the senators, merited advisors, Brutus and Cassius and the rest of the gathered people.

After his death broke out another civil war, won by his adopted son, Augustus who called himself princeps in 27 CE. This event is considered to be the beginning of Roman Empire. Augustus started also the first dynasty ruling over Rome.

Julio-Claudian dynasty

Name

Reign

Short description

Augustus

27 BCE– 14 CE

The founder of Julio-Claudian dynasty. Seemingly he did not change the republican system but he did have the actual power in his hands as he was the first senator and the chief high priest.
Tiberius. He got the title Augusts (Divine) from the Senate. He carried out many significant reforms and broaden the Empire’s borders.

Tiberius

14 – 37 CE

Octavian’s stepson, adopted by the emperor. He was a suspicious person, but also a great commander and administrator. Being afraid of his life he were accusing people of lese majesty and then sentencing them to death. He eventually settled in the Capri island giving orders via correspondence.

Caligula

37 – 41 CE

In the begging he ceased the trials for lese majesty but then he started to reign cruelly, demanding worship. He died assassinated in a conspiracy.

Claudius

41 – 54 CE

Uncle of Caligula, proclaimed emperor by the praetorians. He was a man of scholarly interests. He was a clever ruler as he empowered the emperorship, extended the bureaucracy and granted Roman citizenship to the people living in the provinces. He built a new harbor in Ostia and aqueduct in Rome.

Nero

54 – 68 CE

In politics he was governed by his advisers’ guides. When in 64 CE Rome burnt, the emperors’ enemies began to spread around the suspicions claiming that Nero ordered to burn the city. He committed a suicide when Galba proclaimed himself en emperor.

The Year of the Four Emperors

Name

Reign

Short description

Galba

June 68 – January 69 CE

He was trying to impose discipline in the army and implement retrenching. In the beginning he was backed by his supporter Otho but then he died on Otho’s order. He was the emperor from June 68 to January 69.

Otho

January – April 69 CE

He was appointed the emperor after assassinating Galba, by the praetorians. He ruled from January to April 69.

Vitellius

April – December 69 CE

After Otho’s suicide he proclaimed himself an emperor. Defeating by Vespasian in the battle of Cremona he was thrown into the Tiber. He ruled for 85 days, from April to December 69 CE.

Flavian dynasty

Name

Reign

Short description

Vespasian

69 – 79 CE

The founder of Flavian dynasty. After defeating Vitellius he was appointed the emperor. He accompanied Claudius in the conquest of Brittany in the 40s. He put down Jewish uprising along with his side. He began the building of Roman amphitheater – Colosseum..

Titus

79 – 81 CE

Vespasian’s son. He ended the First Jewish-Roman War (66-70 CE) demolishing Jerusalem. During his reign happened the eruption of Vesuvius and, as en effect, Pompeii and Herculaneum were destroyed. He became famous for being a great reformer and a good emperor.

Domitian

81 – 96 CE

Titus’ brother. He finished the building of Colosseum and began organizing the games. He began reigning in an autocratic way and employed terror. He was assassinated by the praetorians.

Antonine dynasty

Name

Reign

Short description

Nerva

96 – 98 CE

The founder of Antonine dynasty. He was far more gentle emperor than his predecessor. He released the prisoners accused of lese majesty and forbade such accusation in the future. He restored confiscated estates and empowered Senate. He also adopted a young commander, Trajan, fighting in Germania.

Trajan

98 – 117 CE

Brilliant reformer. Famous noted for the Trajan’s Column which was erected in honor of his victories. He created new provinces: Dacia, Arabia, Armenia, Mesopotamia and Assyria. He defeated Persians in the war lasting in the years 144-117 CE. He was declared “The best” – Optimus for his achievements.

Hadrian

117 – 138 CE

Connoisseur of art. He reformed the tax system and relaxed the law concerning slavery. He enacted the Perpetual Edict in which he fixed the instructions for praetors. He put down the uprising in Jerusalem in the years 132-135 CE.

Ceionius Commodus

136 – 138 CE

The emperor adopted by Hadrian and appointed successor. Hadrian’s plans were destroyed by Commodus’ death.

Antoninus Pius

138 – 161 CE

Adopted by Hadrian he ruled over the Empire after his death. He became famous for putting down the uprising of Britons and building the Antoninus Wall in 142 CE in Scotland. His reign was a time of peace and prosperity, often called Pax Romana. His reign and the reign of Marcus Aurelius are a decline of Rome’s greatness.

Lucius Verus

161 – 169 CE

He was an adopted brother to Marcus Aurelius and co-emperor until his death.

Marcus Aurelius

161 – 180 CE

His reign was the time of continuous fights. In his “Meditations” he writes that he considered his reign to bring only death and victims, without any benefit for the country. The main enemies of Rome were the Germanic tribes and Parthians. He was a good commander gaining spectacular victories. He was called a philosopher on a throne and he passed into history as a famous stoic. He was an adopted brother of Verus and a co-emperor until Verus died in 169 CE.

Avidius Cassius

175 CE

Usurper in Syria and Egypt.

Commodus

180 – 192 CE

J His reign was a time of cruel tyranny. He is being compared to Caligula. He was assassinated as a result of conspiracy with the participation of his lover, Marcia.

Year of the Five Emperors

Name

Reign

Short description

Pertinax

January – March 193 CE

Pertinax ruled from January to March 193 CE. He was assassinated by the praetorians who had earlier proclaimed him emperor. During his life he was an eques. He came famous in the Aurelius’ campaign.

Didius Julianus

March – June 193 CE

Usurper in Rome. As an influential and wealthy senator, after the assassination of Pertinax he became an emperor, proclaimed by the praetorians. His ruled even shorter than Pertinax. Abandoned by everybody he was assassinated.

Pescennius Niger

193 – 194 CE

Usurper in the East, proclaimed emperor by the legions there. Almost simultaneously (13th of April 193 CE) Danubian soldiers proclaimed Septimus Severus an emperor. In the same time Severus gained the support of almost all Danubian and Rhenish legions. Being uncertain about the situation in Italy and in the east he formed an alliance with the intendant of Britain – Clodius Albinus, pretending to the throne. He was appointed Severus’ successor with the exclusion of his sons. Severus managed to deal with the creators by disbanding their troops and forming new ones from the veterans. He marched to the east agains Pescennius whom he eventually defeated and killed in 195 CE.

Clodius Albinus

196 – 197 CE

Usurper in Britain and Gaul. Proclaimed emperor by the soldiers in Britain and land owners in Gaul and Hispania. He formed a strategic alliance with Severus and became his legal successor. After Niger’s death, a new civil war began between the past allies. ehe final confrontation between him and Severus took place on on 19 February 197 CE at Lugdunum – Severus won whereas Clods committed suicide.

Severan dynasty

Name

Reign

Short description

Septimus Severus

193 – 211 CE

Founder ofSeveran dynasty. On 13 April 193 Danubian army proclaimed him an emperor. Between 197 and 199 CE he defeated the king of Parthians in the Parthian War and created a new province on the conquered lands – Mesopotamia. He created three new legions, called the Syrian. During his reign, against the 200 hundred old tradition a legion stationed outside Rome. (the second legion of Syria). He proclaimed Caracalla his co-emperor.

Geta

211 – 212 CE

Co-emperor with his brother and father from 209 to 212 (from 211 with Caracalla). Assassinated on the orders of Caracalla, died in his mother’s arms.

Caracalla

211 – 217 CE

Co-emperor with his father and then with his brother, Geta. After assassinating Geta he became an only emperor. In 212 CE he granted Roman citizenship to all inhabitants of the Empire. Despotic and cruel. He wanted to unite the kingdom of Parthia with Rome.

Macrinus

217 – 218 CE

He was a Berber by descent and never had a seat in the Senate. Short duration of his reign do not allow to determine what kind of en emperor he was. He died in the battle with the rebels.

Diadumenian

218 CE

Macrinus’ son, he was a co-emperor from 218 CE. He was killed along with his father in the same year.

Elagabalus

218 – 222 CE

Proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. He killed his mother Julia in 222. He was supposed to be illegitimate son of Caracalla. Famous for his homosexual and orgiastic interests.

Severus Alexander

222 – 235 CE

Adopted by Elagabalus. He was trying to change the country’s internal politics by sharing his power with the Senate. He was supported by a well-known lawyer, Ulpian. After entering into agreement with the Germans he was assassinated by his own soldiers. After his death the country began to suffer a long-lasting crisis.

Crisis

Name

Reign

Short description

Maximinus Thrax

235 – 238 CE

He came into power with the support of praetorians despite the fact that the soldier chose Verus in Germania. His reign faced with opposition of the inhabitants in the North Africa and, as a result and it set off a revolt supported by the Senate. The uprising moved to Italia. Thorax was killed in Roe by his own soldiers. The period of the beginning of Maximinus (235 CE) reign to the beginnings of Diocletian reign (284 CE) are being called dark decades.

Verus Maximus

236 – 238 CE

Emperor from 236 CE. Son of Maximinus Thrax, killed with his father in 238 CE.

Quartinus

235 CE

Usurper in the East.

Gordian I

238 CE

He was chosen by the insurgent aristocracy inhabiting the provinces of Africa who were against Maximinus Thrax. As he was very old, his son, Gordian II, was his co-emperor. He ruled for 21 days.

Gordian II

238 CE

Co-emperor with his father Gordian I. He killed trying to defend Carthage in a hopeless fight between militia and the best Roman legions commanded by Capellianus.

Balbinus

238 CE

Proclaimed emperor in 238 CE as a result of a rebellion alongside with Pupienus. They were assassinated after 3 months, they ruled together for 99 days.

Pupienus

238 CE

Proclaimed emperor in 238 CE as a result of a rebellion alongside with Balbinus. They were assassinated after 3 months, they ruled together for 99 days.

Gordian III

238 – 244 CE

In the years 242-243 he regained Syria and Mesopotamia from the Persians. Killed by Philip the Arab, the prefect of praetors.

Sabinian

240 CE

Usurper.

Philip the Arab

244 – 249 CE

Killed Gordian to be the emperor. He did not become famous for anything in particular.

Philip II

247 – 249 CE

He got the “Caesar” title in 244 CE (this year his father took the power), the “Augustus” title in 247 CE (he was then 10 years old).

Silbannacus

244 – 249 CE

Usurper.

Pacatianus

248 CE(?)

Usurper in Moesia.

Jotapian

248 CE

Usurper in Cappadocia.

Sponsian

244 – 249 CE

Usurper.

Trajan Decius

249 – 251 CE

Killed Philip I and his son, Philip II to become en emperor. Died in the battle of Abrittus.

Gaius Julius Priscus

249 – 250 CE

Usurper in Philippopolis. Brother of Philip the Arab.

Licinianus

250 CE

Usurper in Rome.

Herennius Decius

251 CE

The elder son of Decius, the emperor, brother of Hostillian. In 250 CE he, along with his brother, became emperor and soon after that, before the 9th of June, got the “Augustus” title. He died with his father in the battle of Abrittus in Moesia.

Hostillian Gallus

251 CE

The younger son of Decius, brother of Herennius Decius. in 250 CE he was proclaimed “Caesar” along with his brother. Herennius became “Augustus” the same year. Hostillian, probably because he was relatively young, remained “Caesar”. Died due to plague.

Trebonian Gallus

251 – 253 CE

He reign from 251 to 253 CE. He was proclaimed emperor, as many of his predecessor, by the soldiers. He had to face many invasions on Roman territory and in-fighting in the Empire. He ended up like plenty of emperors at that time.

Volusianus

251 – 253 CE

Son of Trebonianus Gallus, co-emperor with his father.

Aemilian

253 CE

Proclaimed emperor by four subservient legions in 253 CE. In order to legitimate the emperor’s power he attacked rightful emperors in Italia, Trebonianus and Volusianus. Senate granted him all the titles.

Mereades

253 – 260 CE

Usurper.

Uranius Antoninus

249 – 254 CE

Usurper in Syria.

Valerian I

253 – 260 CE

He was fighting with the Persians and was captured in battle of Edessa, died in captivity (the only emperor who lived in captivity).

Gallienus

253 – 268 CE

In his reign the chaos ruled in the Empire. The country suffered from many invasions – Persians, Franks, Goths, Alemanni and many others. Many armies proclaimed different emperors at that time.

Valerian II

253 – 257 CE

Co-emperor with his father, Gallienus,

Celsus

253 – 268 CE

Usurper.

Ingenuus

258 – 260 CE

Usurper in Panonia.

Saloninus

259 – 260 CE

In 258 CE he was proclaimed emperor after the death of his brother, Valerian II who had died nearly two years earlier. Assassinated on orders of Postumus.

Macrianus

260 – 261 CE

Usurper in the East.

Quietus

260 – 261 CE

Usurper in the East.

Regalianus

260 CE

Usurper in Panonia.

Mussius Aemilianus

261 – 262 CE

Usurper in Egypt.

Gallic Empire

(formally usurpers)

Name

Reign

Short description

Postumus

260 – 269 CE

Represented himself as the restorer of Gaul. His power was limited only to Gaul, Britain and Hispania. He was murdered by the insurgent soldiers.

Aureolus

268 – 269 CE

Usurper in Raetia.

Laelianus

268 CE

Usurper.

Marius

268 CE

Usurper.

Domitian II

268 CE

Usurper. Known only for two accidentally discovered coins issued by him. Until recently it was discussed whether he had really existed, question the authenticity of one of the coins. Dimities could have participated in the dethronement of Victorinus and then became a rival for Tetricus with whom he apparently lost the struggle for power over Imperium Galliarum. Proclaiming him emperor could have been a result of danger, as there was a possibility of barbarian invasion in the beginning of Aurelianus reign.

Victorinus

268 – 270 CE

Usurper.

Tetricus I

270 – 273 CE

Usurper.

Tetricus II

270 – 273 CE

Usurper.

Illyrian emperors

Name

Reign

Short description

Claudius II Gothicus

268 – 270 CE

One of Gallienus’ graters commanders. He gained many victories over the Goths. The most significant one was the victory in the battle of Naissus in Moesia. He became famous for fighting with the Gots and thus got the surname Gothicus. He was a victim of the plague.

Quintillus Gothicus

270 CE

Proclaimed emperor by the army in 270 CE (decision approved by the Senate). Brother of Clodius II Gothicus).

Aurelian

270 – 275 CE

One of the graters emperors in the second half of the 3rd century. He started to overcome the crisis heavy-handedly. In 271 CE he ordered to erect fortified walls which main aim was to protect Rome from the barbarian invasions. He also destroyed the country of Zenobia and Voballathus in the Palmyrene Empire and incorporated their lands to the Roman Empire. He died assassinated in conspiracy during the Persian campaign.

Urbanus

270 – 271 CE

Usurper.

Septimus

271 CE

Usurper in Dalmatia.

Voballathus

271 – 272 CE

King of the Palmyrene Empire, usurper.

Antiochus

272 CE

Usurper in the Palmyrene Empire.

Tacitus

275 – 276 CE

He had no authority among the soldiers and thus he died being murdered.

Florianus

276 CE

He was trying to oppose his rival, the commander of eastern legions – Marcus Aurelius Probus. He ruled for 88 days, from July to September 276 CE.

Probus

276 – 282 CE

After murdering emperor Florins in 276 CE he was proclaimed new emperor. In his reign there were more barbarian attacks in he northern part of the Empire. He was a great commander and he eventually managed to pacify the northern line.

Bonosus

280 CE

Usurper in Cologne (Colonia).

Saturnin

280 CE

Usurper in Syria.

Proculus

280 – 281 CE

Usurper in Lugdunum.

Carus

282 – 283 CE

Proclaimed emperor after a rebellion and murdering his predecessor, Probus. He fought with the Sarmatians and the Persians. He died during one of military campaigns, presumably struck by lightning.

Numerian

283 – 284 CE

Co-emperor with his brother Carinus, younger son of Carus

Carinus

283 – 285 CE

Hated in the Empire because of his admiration of cruelty, luxury and orgy.

J Julian of Pannonia

284 – 285 CE

Usurper in the Veneti country, Istria and Pannonia.

Dominate

(Tetrarchy / Constantinian dynasty)

Name

Reign

Short description

Diocletian

284 – 305 CE

His reign opens the era of late Roman Empire, the era of dominate. Diocletian transformed the country into absolute monarchy, establishing despotic government system called the dominate, depriving Senate of all its influence. The emperor received divine traits and was being worshipped, also eastern ceremonial was introduced. He established the system of tetrarchy to improve the governance: there were two emperors with the title “Augustus” (in the East – Diocletian, in the West – Maximian) and their two helpers with the the title “Caesar” (in the East – Galerius, in the West – Chlorus).

Maximian

285 – 310 CE

Adopted by Diocletian, co-emperor to 285 CE. He assumed the title “Augustus” in 286 CE. He ruled over the western part of the Empire.

Amandus

285 – 286 CE

Usurper.

Carausius

287 – 293 CE

Usurper in Britain.

Allectus

293 – 296 CE

Usurper in Britain.

Domitius Domitianus

296 – 297 CE

Usurper in Egypt.

Constantius Chlorus

305 – 306 CE

He became famous for being the father of Constantine the Great.

Galerius

305 – 311 CE

He assumed the title “Caesar” on 1 March 293 CE from Diocletian, to whose daughter, Galeria, Valeria, he was married.

Valerius Severus

306 – 307 CE

He was proclaimed an emperor on 1 May 305 CE, co-emperor during the reign of Constantius Chlorus. After Chlorus’ death on 25 July 306 CE, along with Galerius, he was trying (unsuccessfully) to dethrone Maxentius.

Maxentius

307 – 312 CE

After the death of Constantius Chlorus in 306 CE, legions in Britain proclaimed his son, Constantine the Great, emperor. Whereas the plebeians and praetors proclaimed Maxentius.

Lucius Domitius Alexander

308 – 309/311 CE

Usurper in Africa.

Constantine the Great

306 – 337 CE

He became famous mostly for being the first emperor to be christened. In 313 during the meeting in Milan he proclaimed the Edict of Milan which declared religious tolerance for the Christians. His main aim was to continue Diocletian’s work. He was christened a day before he died, by an Arianizing bishop. He left 3 sons as his successors: Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans. Each of them had their own provinces.

Licinius I

308 – 324 CE

Roman emperor born in Moesia, close friend of Galerius, he took part in his Persian campaign in 297 CE.

Maximinus Daia

309 – 313 CE

He assumed the title “Caesar” in 305 CE (he administrated Syria and Egypt). After proclaiming Licinius emperor in 308 CE he demanded to assume the title “Augustus” which he did. After the death of Galerius in 311 CE he took over the command over the provinces in Asia.

Valerius Valens

316 – 317 CE

?

Licinius II

317 – 324 CE

Roman emperor, son of Licinius I.

Martinian

324 CE

After the lost battle of Adrianople on 3 June 324 CE he was appointed co-emperor (Augustus) by Licinius and sent to Lampsacus to delay Constantine’s army coming from Thrace./p>

Crispus

317 – 326 CE

“Caesar”, executed on the order of Constantine I in 326 CE.

Dalmatius

335 – 337 CE

“Caesar”. Assassinated in 337 CE in the massacre of Constantius Chlorus’ sons, born from his second wife, Theodora.

Hannibalianus

335 – 337 CE

“Caesar”. Grandson of Constantinus Chorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Dalmatians was his brother.

Constantine II

337 – 340 CE

The eldest son of Constantine the Great. In 340 Constantine invaded Italy ruled by Constans but he died in the battle of Aquileia.

Constans I

337 – 350 CE

He had an enormous talent in commanding. In 338 CE he crossed Danubius and defeated the Sarmatians. To 340 he was a co-emperor with his brother Constantine II, then he defeated him in a battle. Killed by the usurper Magnentius in 350 CE.

Constantius II

337 – 361 CE

He was fighting battles with the usurper – Magnentius. In 351 the caught battle of Mursa – Constantinus won, however, Magnentius managed to escape. The next campaign in 353 CE in which Magnentius was defeated, forced him to commit a suicide.

Magnentius

350 – 353 CE

Usurper.

Decentius

351 – 353 CE

Usurper, brother of Magnentius.

Vetranio

350 CE

Usurper on the Balkan Peninsula.

Nepotianus

350 CE

Usurper in Rome.

Constantius Gallus

351 – 354 CE

“Caesar”.

Julian the Apostate

361 – 363 CE

Colloquially called Julian. He pursued the restore of paganism as state religion as he wanted to carry out some reforms at the same time. He harassed Christians: ordered them to return the temples and forbade teaching at schools. He died in 363 in one of the battles with the Persians.

Jovian

363 – 364 CE

Reigned from 363 to 364 CE. He was proclaimed emperor after the death of Julian the Apostate when gathered the military council. Their first choice was Salutius Secundus, prefect of praetors, but he rejected this offer. The second choice was Jovian. He established peace with the Persians, but on bad terms, he recognized independence of Armenia. Moreover, he reestablished Christianity as a state religion.

Valentinian dynasty

Name

Reign

Short description

Valentinian I

364 – 375 CE

He was emperor from 364 to 375 CE. He ruled over both eastern and western part of the Empire, but with time he passed the eastern part to his brother, Valens. After few years he appointed Gratian his co-emperor. He died as a result of being to nervous.

Valens

364 – 378 CE

He interfered in the churches internal conflicts in the Arianism advantage as he was a believer. He began a war with the Goths (367-368 and 370-378 CE). He fought with Persian king Shapur II. Died in the battle of Adrianople on 9 August 378 CE.

Procopius

365 – 366 CE

Usurper Constantinople, Thrace and Bithynia.

Gratian

367 – 383 CE

Christian emperor fighting with paganism. He refused taking the title Pontifex Maximus. Gratian, after Valens’ death he appointed Theodosius (future Theodosius the Great) to be his successor. He was killed by his own troops.

Valentinian II

375 – 392 CE

He lived in Milan as both Roman and Byzantine emperor – Valentinian the Great. Assassinated in Gaul.

Theodosian dynasty

Name

Reign

Short description

Theodosius the Great

379 – 395 CE

In 392 CE he forbade professing other religions than Christianity and he declared it to be the only legitimate imperial religion. In 393 he banned organizing the Olympic games as he considered it to be the relic of paganism. He divided the Empire into two parts: western and eastern – this division turned out to be permanent.

Magnus Maximus

383 – 388 CE

Usurper in Britain and Gaul.

Flavius Victor

387 – 388 CE

Usurper in Britain and Gaul.

Eugenius

392 – 394 CE

Usurper in the West.

Emperors of the Western Empire

Name

Reign

Short description

Honorius

395 – 423 CE

T Theodosius divided rulership between his two sons. Honorius received the western half and Arcadius eastern. In 410 CE Rome was invaded by the barbarians with Alaric in command. He also fought many wars with numerous usurpers.

Marcus

406 – 407 CE

Usurper in Britain.

Constantine III

407 – 411 CE

Usurper in Britain, Gaul and Hispania.

Constans II

408 – 411 CE

Usurper in Britain, Gaul and Hispania. “Caesar” (?).

Maximus

409 – 411 CE

Usurper in Hispania.

Priscus Attalus

409 – 415 CE

Usurper.

Jovinus

411 – 413 CE

Usurper in Gaul.

Sebastianus

412 – 413 CE

Usurper in Gaul.

Constantius III

421 CE

In return for defeating usurpers, Honorius proclaimed him co-emperor.

Joannes

423 – 425 CE

Usurper controlling the whole territory of the Western Empire.

Valentinian III

425 – 455 CE

He came into power when he was 6. However, for almost the entire time he did not have any actual power. An attempt to autonomize led to his death.

Petronius Maximus

455 CE

In the reign of Honorius he was a treasury administrator. He ruled only for two months and died killed by the mob.

Avitus

455 – 456 CE

Deposed after the lost battle of Placentia.

Majorian

457 – 461 CE

Emperor of the Western Empire from 457 to 461 CE. He is considered to be last not puppet monarch. He managed to restore power over Iberia and Gaul. One of only a few Roman emperors who made firm moves which could really rescue Rome from the fall.

Libius Severus

461 – 465 CE

Totally dependent on Ricimer, Germanic commender. Libels based his reign on Ricimer.

Anthemius

467 – 472 CE

Along with the Eastern Empire he organized a campaign against the Vandals inhabiting the northern territory but it turned out to be a failure.

Olybrius

472 CE

In his reign Rome was invaded by the Germans for the third time.

Glycerius

473 – 474 CE

Deprived of power by Leo – the emperor of East who passed the imperial insignia to Julius Nepos.

Julius Nepos

474 – 475 CE

Proclaimed emperor of the Western Empire by Leo, emperor of the Eastern Empire.

Romulus Augustulus

475 – 476 CE

The last emperor of the Western Empire. Deposed by Odoacer. Sending away the insignia to Constantinople is considered to be the end of the Western Empire and antiquity.

Profile presenting the age of emperors when they came to power and died

Sources
  • Krawczuk Aleksander, Poczet cesarzy rzymskich, Warszawa 2004
  • Krawczuk Aleksander, Poczet cesarzowych Rzymu, Warszawa 2001

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