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Roman courts

This post is also available in: Polish (polski)

Initially, all judicial functions were vested only in the consul. However, with the development of the republic and the expansion of the magistracy, these functions passed into the hands of the praetor.

Judges could be citizens who were written down on the list by city praetors. Initially, they could only be members of the senatorial state, but with time the situation normalized and this honour could also be granted to equites. After 70 BCE plebeians who manage particular districts (tribuni aerarii) were also admitted to performing this honourable function.

With the development of the system, finally, eight judgments were developed dealing with different areas of life:

  • court for bribes by officials (quaestio perpetua de repetundis)
  • court for sacrilege and misappropriation of social property (quaestio perpetua de peculatu)
  • murder court (quaestio perpetua de sicariis et veneficiis)
  • election bribery court (quaestio perpetua de ambitu)
  • court for contempt of majesty (quaestio perpetua de maiestate)
  • counterfeit court (quaestio perpetua de falso)
  • court for serious public crimes (quaestio perpetua de vi)
  • court for offences against public faith and morals (quaestio perpetua de incestu)

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