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Thrace is an ancient land situated between the Lower Danube, the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Strymon River (Struma). Part of Thrace was very fertile and fertile, especially in the valley of the Hebros River (Marica). The tribes inhabiting Thrace achieved a high level of development, in large part thanks to favourable trade relations with the coastal Greek colonies.

In the time of Thucydides (5th century BCE), Thrace was inhabited by about 20 different tribes, considered by the Greeks to be barbaric. Conquered by Darius I the Great (ruled in the years 521 – 486 BCE) and incorporated into the Persian Empire. 479 BCE regained independence. At the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, temporarily united by Sitalkes, ruler of the Odrysian tribe. In 342 BCE conquered by Philip II of Macedon and incorporated into the Macedonian empire. In the years 146 – 12 BCE it was gradually taken over by Rome, which in 46 made it into 2 provinces: Moesia (northern) and Thrace (southern).

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