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Rome (Eternal City)

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Pantheon was funded by Emperor Hadrian in 125 CE on the site of an earlier structure from 27 BCE, destroyed in a fire in 80 CE, the Pantheon was “a place dedicated to all gods”.
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Rome (Roma) also known as the “Eternal City” or “City of the Seven Hills” was founded in the Iron Age as a Latin settlement situated on the top of the Palatine Hill. Its inhabitants were simple sheep shepherds (around 800-750 BCE). Over time, they took up crafts and trade with their neighbors (Rome’s wealth came from the sale of salt mined in brines at the mouth of the Tiber). Population began to increase and Eskwilin and the Capitol were settled. The place where Rome was founded was originally called Septimontium. Perhaps the name Alba Longa appeared later – the inhabitants of Alba Longi were probably the founders of Rome. According to Maria Jaczynowska in “The History of Ancient Rome”, which cites historical sources, Rome was most likely founded by colonists from Alba Longa, which was 19 km southeast of Rome. It follows that Rome was never called Alba Longa in the early period. The city, also known as Albalonga, was destroyed by Rome around the middle of the 7th century BCE.

According to a tradition handed down to us by Livius, Rome founded Romulus on April 21, 753 BCE and became his first king. From that date the history of the city was counted – “Ab urbe condita” or AUC (“from the foundation of the city”).
“Sons of the she-wolf” due to the lack of women in the city, they decided to get them, raiding the settlement of the neighbouring Sabines, located on the Quirinale hill. The audacious plan to kidnap Sabinek was successful. When the Sabines tried to rescue the women, they persuaded them to make a truce and then an alliance with the Romans. In fact, there must have been a union between the Romans and the Sabines around the middle of the 8th century BCE.

Map of the ancient city of Rome

After Romulus’ death, six kings reigned in succession. Tradition says that they were: Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ankus Marcius, Tarwinus the Old, Servius Tulius and Tarkwinius Delicious.

Numa Pompilius (circa 715-673 BCE) was to introduce m.in. the cult of Vesta, and Ankus Martius (642-617 BCE) extended the territory of Rome as far as the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea. The tradition, however, seems to be untrue, because seven kings constituting in fact six generations (Tarkwinius Pysny was the son of Tarquinius the Old) ruled for about 225 years. Society at that time was divided into two basic groups: patricians, belonging to the aristocracy, and plebeians, who were free citizens but had no right to participate in the administration of the city.

Patricians were probably Latin descendants, they were called patres. They formed an ethnic and religious community, that is, they were organized into tribes (gentes) who took part in the same cults, and their children married and traded among themselves. The plebeians, on the other hand, probably came from the Sabines or it was an influx of people. There could be only one type of relationship between patricians and plebeians – clientelistic, which meant that the plebeian became a client, subordinating to one of the patrician families, and in return received legal and economic protection.

In such an arrangement, the clan leaders (patres gentium) were the great landowners, forming a powerful oligarchy, while the plebeians consisted of wage laborers, petty traders, artisans, and small plot owners. Patricians were divided into curiae, and the administrative division unit was tribus. Initially, there were three of them in Rome (Ramnes, Tities and Luceres). The Romans were also divided into 30 curiae. Only patricians were required to serve in the military. Each curia exhibited 100 armed men, and each tribus 100 horses.

At one point the Etruscans seized power in the city, probably around 616 BCE. Most likely the last three Roman kings were of Etruscan origin. Around 565 BCE the first walls were built around the city.
Tarquinius nicknamed the Delicious (Superbus) was banished by inhabitants in 509 BCE for cruelty, tyranny and despotism. Disappointed with the power of kings, the Romans introduced a republican system.

Around 450 BCE the Laws of XII Tables was announced. In 390 BCE, Rome was invaded by the Gauls or Celts. After this accident, it was decided to build new defensive walls, which began to be built in 378 BCE (Serwiańskie Walls ). In 312 BCE construction began on the first Roman road via Appia and the first aqueduct. In 293 BCE the cult of Aesculapius was introduced in Rome. In 289 BCE a mint was established in the city near the Temple of Juno Monet (the Remembering) – hence the name of the metal money. In 264 BCE the first gladiator games took place. In 220 BCE the via Flaminia was built that connected Rome with the Adriatic Sea.

Ancient Rome was situated on the hills (collis, mons). To the north was the hill Pincius, which was home to the famous Gardens of Lucullus (founded around 60 BCE) and Sallust (founded after 45 BCE). In 49 CE during the reign of Claudius, the hill called Collis Hortulorum was incorporated into the walls of Rome. Nearby was the Quirinale hill with the temple of Quirinus, the temple of the Sun erected by Aurelian and the temple of Flavian erected by Domitian. Quirinal was a district of villas and palaces. Emperor Diocletian built a thermal bath on the Viminal hill. The Eskwilin hill was occupied by min. Patron’s gardens, Nero’s Golden House, Portico of Livia (Octavian Augustus), Baths (Titus and Trajan), Triumphal Arch (Galienus), Claudius aqueducts. On the Celius hill in the 5th century CE, Petronius Maximus built a new forum. Palatine was the seat of Romulus (Roma Quadrata), then a district of the richest Romans and imperial palaces. Capitoline Hill was the religious center of Rome. Here were the temple of Capitoline Jupiter from the end of the 6th century BCE, where the Sibylline books were kept, the temple of Juno and the temple of Minerva. The Aventine Hill was occupied by the poorest district of Rome. On the Aventine Hill, there were the following temples: Cerera, Libera and Libera, later also the temple of Minerva, patrons of craftsmen, and the archives of the plebeian community. On the right bank of the Tiber rose the Janiculum hill, which remained outside the city walls, only in the 3rd century CE the emperors Aurelian and Probus surrounded part of the Janiculum with walls.

The rural population, whose lands were devastated by Hannibal in 219 BCE, moved en masse to the city, followed by slaves and liberators. The population of Rome quickly rose to over half a million. There was no shortage of work for the immigrants, the city was expanding, roads, aqueducts, markets and temples were constructed. All from the taxes that came from the provinces. In 167 BCE the library of Perseus of the Macedonian king was brought to Rome, and in 161 BCE Greek philosophers were expelled from the city. In 142 BCE, the first stone bridge over the Tiber was built. During the empire, the banks of the Tiber were connected by bridges: Fabrizius, Agrippa, Aurelius, Cestius, Emilius and Probus. In 46 BCE (on Caesar’s initiative) Sosigenes reformed the Roman calendar.

In 59 CE, Emperor Nero organized games based on the Greek. In 64 CE a great fire breaks out in Rome. The rebuilding of the city begins, and it becomes even more beautiful than before. In 72 CE construction of the Colosseum began, in 125 the Pantheon, and in 216 the Baths of Caracalla are completed. The Empire had grown to gigantic proportions by then. In 212, all its inhabitants receive Roman citizenship. In 247, the first millennium of Rome was celebrated. In the 70s of the 3rd century CE, new city walls were built, known as the Aurelian Walls.

The oldest parts of the city are: Forum Romanum, Boarium Forum, Mars Field and Via Appia.

In 330 CE, Emperor Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople. In 395, there was a division into the Eastern Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople, and the Western Roman Empire with its capital in Milan, and then in Ravenna. Since then, the role of Rome has been further marginalized. The city was captured by the Visigoths under Alaric in 410 and by the North African Vandals in 455. The year 476 CE is considered the symbolic date of the fall of the empire.

The Forum Romanum was the main political, religious and social center of Ancient Rome, the venue for the most important public celebrations.
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Building style

Rome was initially built up in a very chaotic manner. This caused numerous problems with frequent fires or blocking the traffic. The first innovative solutions in this matter were made by Emperor Nero after the fire of Rome in 64 CE At that time, a transparent network of city roads was marked out, recommendations regarding the development of houses were issued (the idea was to ensure free access to the building for fire-fighting units, and that the buildings were located at a distance from each other, which was a preventive factor in terms of the possibility of fire or collapse of buildings). In addition, then also recommendations were issued to what height houses can be built and from what materials. Water abstraction from aqueducts to the richest houses was also limited, allocating its excess to storage in reservoirs in case of fire.

Walking the streets of Suburra, Rome’s plebeian neighbourhood, it was easy to see the difference in the way and conditions of commoners and noble domus dwellers. The noise and commotion that reigned in the streets was immediately hit – itinerant sellers, crowds of inhabitants, thieves, frauds, workers, slaves with sacks on their backs. They were all pacing the narrow streets, discussing, trying to bargain favorable prices. Along the street there were shops offering food products or handicrafts, warehouses, workshops, fruit and greens stalls. People’s flats were located above the shops, sometimes in five or six-story buildings with an attic. They were built of inferior quality materials, keeping costs as low as possible; their collapsing and fires, the risk of which was exacerbated by wooden floors, the use of portable stoves, oil lamps, torches for lighting, and a small amount of water were the order of the day. Flats were rented from owners by poor families, the cost of the most miserable flat was very high, it could reach 2,000 sesterces (the daily wage of a worker was 5 sesterces) and the higher you entered, the worse the conditions were. At the very top, the poorest lived, crammed into small rooms with no glass in the windows, unsecured against bad weather, deprived of running water and convenient – the water supply only supplied water to the ground floor. The apartments were very modestly furnished: a simple brick bed was covered with a mattress, there was a table and a few stools in them. The portable stove was used to heat and cook food. People went to the nearest fountain for water, and public latrines took care of their needs.

The Seven Hills of Rome

Rome was built on the seven hills (Septimontium). The seven hills, all on the eastern side of the Tiber, form the heart of the city. They played a very important role in mythology, religion and the politics of ancient Rome. According to tradition, the city was founded by Romulus on the Palatine (Mons Palatinus).

The seven hills include:

  • Aventine (Mons Aventinus);
  • Palatine (Mons Palatinus). Its western slope has been called Cermalus;
  • Quirinal (Collis Quirinalis). It consists of three peaks: Latiaris, Mucialis and Salutaris;
  • Viminal (Collis Viminalis);
  • Celius (Mons Caelius);
  • Esquilin (Mons Esquilinus). Consisting of the tops: Oppius, Cispius, and Fagutal;
  • Capitoline Hill (Mons Capitolinus), whose mountain pass is called Asylum, divides the North Peak of Arx from the South Capitoline proper.
Location of the Seven Hills (Septimontium) in Rome. It was on them that the capital of the empire was born.
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There are also other heights not included in the list of seven hills like Velia that connects the Palatine Hill with the Esquiline slopes.
Vatican (Montes Vaticani), Janiculum (Ianiculum) and Pincio (Mons Pincius).

It is worth noting that the Roman writer Festus mentions the feast celebrated on December 11th with a procession that touched the eight hills (Palatium, Velia, Fagutal, Subura, Cermalus, Caelius, Oppius, Cispius). As can be seen, the list does not correspond to the traditionally accepted seven hills and may be a relic of some old ritual.

Events related to the city of Rome

  • 753-717 BCE – the reign of Romulus – initially together with the Sabine king Titus Tacius (Titus Tatius). After the death of Tatius, Romulus ruled until 716, when he was taken alive to heaven and became the god Quirin;
  • 750 BCE – Tarpeja delivered the city to the Sabines;
  • 715-673 BCE – Sabin king of Rome – Numa Pompilius. He introduced a division into working days (dies fasti) and holidays (dies nefasti). He was the first Roman legislator. He gave the 1st Legal Code;
  • 715 BCE – Numa Pompilius creates a 12-month calendar, introduces the cult of Vesta;
  • 673-642 BCE – the Sabin king of Rome – Tullus Hostilius (Tulus Hostilius) included the Caelius hill into the city;
  • 659 BCE – Romans destroy Alba Longa;
  • 642-617 BCE – the Sabine king of Rome – Ankus Marcius (Ancus Marcius). He extended Rome to the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea and built the port of Osti;
  • 642 BCE – construction of the first bridge over the Tiber – Pons Sublicius;
  • 616-579 BCE – Etruscan king of Rome – Tarquinius the Old (Tarquinius Priscus);
  • 616 BCE – drainage of the area between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hill, foundation of the Forum Romanum and construction of Circus Maximus;
  • ok. 600 BCE – construction of the original Cloaca Maxima at the Forum Romanum;
  • 578-535 BCE – Etruscan king of Rome – Servius Tullius (Servius Tullius) – beginnings of the “Servius” organization, Forum Baorium (“Cattle Marcuset”), Temple of Diana on Aventine Hill.
  • 565 BCE – erection of the “Servian Wall”, that is the earth embankment;
  • 535/534 BCE – murder of King Servius Tulius;
  • 534-510 BCE – the Etruscan king of Rome – L. Tarquinius the Pysny (Tarquinius Superbus)
  • 510 BCE – completion of the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill (its dedication took place after the founding of the Roman Republic);
  • 509 BCE – Lucius Junius Brutus (Lucius Iunius Brutus) at the head of the uprising chased King Tarquinius the Proud and the Etruscans from the city. The announcement of the foundation of the Republic. Establishing the institution of two consuls with a one-year term of office. Lucius Junius Brutus became the first consul together with Lucius Tarquinius Kollatyn.
    Templum Iovis Optimi Maximi), dedicated on September 13, after the republic was established, by consul Marcus Horatius Pulwillus – the first certain date in the history of the city;
  • 501 BCE – appointment of the first dictator – Titus Larcius;
  • 501-498 BCE – Temple of Saturn (Aedes Saturnus) at the Forum Romanum;
  • 499 BCE – Temple of Castor and Pollux;
  • 495 BCE – dedication of the Temple of Mercurius (Aedes Mercurius) to Circus Maximus;
  • 494 BCE – establishment of the functions of a people’s tribune to protect the plebeians from abuses by patricians, first plebeian secession;
  • 493 BCE – dedication of the Temple of Ceres on Aventine;
  • 484 BCE – dedication of the Temple of Castor and Pollux (Templum Castoris et Pollucis) at the Forum Romanum;
  • 460 BCE – slave uprising;
  • 451-449 BCE – gathering, writing on bronze tablets and proclaiming the laws of the XII Tables;
  • 449 BCE – second plebeian revolt;
  • 443 BCE – establishment of the office of censor;
  • 440 BCE – Famine in Rome;
  • 433-431 BCE – Temple of Apollo;
  • 396-392 BCE – Temple of Juno (Aedes Iuno Regina) on Aventine Hill;
  • 390 BCE – the conquest of Rome by the Gauls, the legend of the Capitoline geese
  • 380 BCE – erection of the so-called the Servian Wall (or 378);
  • 375 BCE – Temple of Juno on Esquiline (Aedes Iuno Lucina);
  • 367 BCE – first plebeian consul Lucio Sestio;
  • 366 BCE – construction of the Templum Concordiae (Temple of Concord) at the Forum Romanum
    Marcus Furius Camillus);
  • 365 BCE – the first theatre performance in Rome;
  • 357 BCE – Tax on the liberation of slaves introduced;
  • 356 BCE – first plebeian dictator Gaius Marcius Rutilus;
  • 344 BCE – Temple of Juno Monet on the Capitol;
  • 326 BCE – Lex Poetelia law;
  • 312 BCE – construction of the road Via Appia and the aqueduct Aqua Appia started by censor Appius Claudius;
  • 306-303 BCE – Temple of Salus in the Quirinale;
  • 293 BCE – introduction of the cult of Aesculapius (Aesculapius);
  • 289 BCE – establishment of a state mint near the temple of Juno Monet (the Remembering)
  • 272-269 BCE – construction of the aqueduct Anio Vetus;
  • 269 BCE – the first silver coins from the mint;
  • 264 BCE – Rome’s conquest of the Apennine Peninsula;
  • 264 BCE – the first gladiatorial games at the funeral of Junius Brutus Pera;
  • 250 BCE – the first paid school founded by Carvilius;
  • 241 BCE – the road Via Aurelia, connected Rome with Pisa;
  • 240 BCE – Livius Andronicus presented the first Latin tragedy and comedy during ludi Romani;
  • 235 BCE – first quadrigates emission;
  • 221 BCE – Consul Gaius Flaminius Nepos erects Circus Flaminius;
  • 220 BCE – Via Flaminia road from Rome to Ariminum (Rimini);
  • 212 BCE – introduction of a new monetary unit – denarius;
  • 204 BCE – the cult of the goddess Cybele was introduced in Rome;
  • 196 BCE – first triumphal arch – Lucius Stertinius;
  • 193 BCE – granary and market hall Porticus aemilia – first concrete edifice;
  • 187 BCE – displacement of Latins from Rome, road construction completed: Via Aemilia and Via Flaminia;
  • 186 BCE – Bacchanalia prohibited in Rome;
  • 184 BCE – erection of Basilica Porcia;
  • 179 BCE – the beginning of the construction of the Emilian (Fulvian) Basilica at the Forum Romanum
  • 167 BCE – Bringing the Library of Perseus, king of Macedon;
  • 161 BCE – deportation of Greek philosophers;
  • 153 BCE – shifted the beginning of the year from the Vernal Equinox to January 1st;
  • 148 BCE – build Via Postumia;
  • 147 BCE – The Temple of Jupiter Stator – the first Greek marble structure in Rome;
  • 144-140 BCE – construction of the Marcian Aqueduct (Aqua Marcia);
  • 142/141 BCE – the first Pons Aemilius stone bridge across the Tiber – preserved in fragments;
  • 126-125 BCE – construction of the aqueduct Aqua Tepula;
  • 121 BCE – construction of via Domitia;
  • 115 BCE – erection of the Moulin Bridge (Pons Milvius);
  • 97 BCE – Sulla allows gladiators to fight lions;
  • 83 BCE – destruction of the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill by fire and its reconstruction in 69 BCE;
  • 78 BCE – construction of the Tabularium, state archive on the Capitoline Hill;
  • 62-23 BCE – construction of the Pons Fabricius bridge;
  • 58 BCE – Free distribution of grain to the poor inhabitants of the city;
  • 55 BCE – Pompey inaugurates the first brick theatre in Rome – Pompey Theater;
  • 54 BCE – Caesar begins construction of Giulia Basilica and his Forum;
  • 46 BCE – the reform of the Roman calendar – was carried out at Caesar’s initiative by Sosigenes;
  • 46-44 BCE – construction of the Pons Cestius Bridge (Pons Aurelius);
  • 45 BCE – from January 1, the Julian calendar introduced by Julius Caesar was used;
  • 44 BCE – Gaius Julius Caesar, having overthrown the Senate rule, proclaimed himself a permanent dictator;
  • March 15th, 44 BCE – Caesar’s death – Ides of March; construction of Curia Julia;
  • 42 BCE – construction of the Temple of the Divine Caesar (Templum Divi Iulii) on the Forum Romanum
  • 39 BCE – Gaius Asinius Pollio, having obtained funds in the Illyrian War, founded the Forum Romanum
    Atrium Libertatis;
  • 33 BCE – construction of the aqueduct Aqua Julia; Agrippa created a group of slaves, the so-called familia aquarum dealing with the maintenance and conservation of Roman waterworks;
  • 29 BCE – dedication of the Temple of Divine Julius at the Forum;
  • 28 BCE – census; dedication of the Temple of Apollo on the Palatine, commencement of the construction of the Mausoleum of Augustus and establishment of the library in the portico of the Temple of Apollo on the Palatine – Bibliotheka Palatina;
  • 27-25 BCE – Marcus Agrippa builds the Pantheon;
  • 25 BCE – Marcus Agrippa completes the construction of the first baths in Rome (Thermae Agrippae);
  • 19 BCE – Marcus Agrippa builds the aqueduct Aqua Virgo;
  • 19/18 BCE – Arch of Augustus built at the Forum Romanum by the Senate for the victory of Octavian Augustus at Azio (Actium);
  • 13 BCE – construction of Ara Pacis begins and the Theater of Marcellus inauguration;
  • 12-10 BCE – Pyramid of Cestius;
  • 10 BCE – August erects an obelisk of Ramesses II in Circus Maximus (now in Piazza Montecitorio);
  • 9 BCE – dedication of the Altar of Peace (Ara Pacis);
  • 7 BCE – the division of Rome into the 14th regiones;
  • 2 BCE – dedication of the Temple of Mars the Avenger, opening of the Forum of Augustus, construction of the aqueduct Aqua Alsietina;
  • 1 CE – completion of the Aqua Alsietina aqueduct;
  • 6 CE – appointment of the night and fire brigade Militia Vigilum;
  • 19 CE – deportation of Jews from the city;
  • 27 CE – Rome’s fire, the first Asian apricots in the city;
  • 38-52 CE – construction of aqueducts: Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus;
  • 42 CE – traditional date of arrival of St. Peter to Rome (no sources confirming the presence of Saint Peter in Rome);
  • 60 CE – introduction of the games called Neroia;
  • 64 CE – fire of Rome (18/19 July), construction of Domus Aurea started;
  • 67 CE – one of the accepted traditional dates of St. Peter and St. Paul;
  • 69 CE – fire destruction of the Temple of Jupiter in the Capitol;
  • 70-75 CE – reconstruction of the Capitoline temple;
  • 71 CE – deportation of astrologers and philosophers from the city;
  • 72 CE – construction of the Flavian Amphitheatre (Flavium Amphitheatrum) called the Colosseum;
  • 80 CE – fire of Rome: incl. destruction of the Capitoline Temple and the Pantheon; inauguration of the Flavian Amphitheatre and the beginning of the construction of the Circus (Stadium) of Titus Domitian;
  • 81 CE – completion of the Baths of Titus, construction of the Temple of Vespasian (Templum divi Vespasiani) at the Forum Romanum;
  • 81-96 CE – construction of the Arch of Titus on the hill Velia;
  • 82 CE – reconstruction of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter and its dedication;
  • 86 CE – inauguration of the Capitoline Games;
  • 90 CE – the opening of Domitian’s Circus;
  • 92 CE – completion of construction of the palace complex Domus Flavia on the Palatine;
  • 96 CE – dedication from Forum Nervae;
  • 100 CE – Emperor Trajan’s Bibliotheka Ulpia inaugurated, construction of Trajan’s Forum started;
  • 102-105 ne – reconstruction of the port in Ostia;
  • 104-109 CE – Baths of Trajan;
  • 109 CE – Aqua Traiana aqueduct;
  • 112 CE – Trajan’s Forum dedication;
  • 113 CE – completion of Trajan’s Column;
  • 121-141 CE – construction of the Temple of Venus and Roma (Templum Veneris et Romae) at the Forum Romanum;
  • 123 CE – construction of Hadrian’s Mausoleum, later St. Angel;
  • 118-124/125 CE – reconstruction of the Pantheon by Emperor Hadrian;
  • 134 CE – completion of the bridge over the Tiber – Pons Aelius (Ponte Sant’Angelo), opening of the Athenaeum University;
  • 141-145 CE – construction of the Temple of Antony and Faustina at the Forum Romanum (Church of San Lorenzo in Miranda);
  • 165 CE – the plague epidemic in Rome;
  • 167 CE – the plague epidemic in Rome;
  • 168 CE – famine in Rome;
  • 174-193 CE – Column of Marcus Aurelius;
  • 170-175 CE – equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius;
  • 190 CE – fire of Rome;
  • 200 CE – Gate of Goldsmiths and Money Exchange at Forum Baorium;
  • 203 CE – dedication of Arch of Severus;
  • 209 CE – the official “Acta Diurna”, founded by Julius Caesar in 59 BCE, the prototype of today’s newspaper, has ceased to be published;
  • 215 CE – issue of silver coins called antonines;
  • 212-217 CE – construction of the Baths of Karakallli;
  • 217 CE – fire in the Colosseum, repair work lasted until 222 CE;
  • 221 CE – construction of Circus Flaminius;
  • 226 CE – erection of the Aqua Alexandrina aqueduct;
  • 248 CE – Games for the millennium of Rome, ordered by Emperor Philip I Arab;
  • 271-275 CE – construction of the Aurelian Walls;
  • 274 CE – Temple of the Sun-God (Sol Invictus);
  • 283 CE – fire of Rome;
  • 302-306 CE – construction of the Baths of Diocletian (Thermae Diocletiani);
  • 305 CE – transfer of the imperial capital from Rome to Milan;
  • 308-312 CE – construction of the Basilica of Maxentius, the largest building in the Forum Romanum,
  • 311 CE – Inauguration of Circus of Maxentius at via Appia;
  • 312-315 CE – construction of the Arch of Constantine
  • 314-324 CE – construction of St. John in Lateran;
  • ok. 326 CE – consecration of the first St. Peter in the Vatican;
  • 336 CE – Pope Marcus erects St. Brand;
  • 382 CE – removal of the Victoria altar from the Senate building;
  • 386 CE – construction of St. Paul Outside the Walls;
  • 392 CE – St. Clement;
  • 393 CE – the end of the Olympic Games;
  • 394 CE – extinguishing the eternal fire in the Temple of Vesta in Rome;
  • 399 CE – Emperor Honorius closed the schools of gladiators in Rome;
  • 404 CE – January 1 – the last gladiatorial fights took place;
  • 405 CE – Emperor Honorius closed the Colosseum;
  • 408 CE – earthquake, Alaric’s first siege of Rome;
  • 409 CE – Second Siege of Rome by Alaric;
  • 410 CE – Visigothic invasion of Alaric and sacking Rome (August 24-27);
  • 422-432 CE – construction of St. Sabina;
  • 431/432 CE – construction of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore started;
  • 432-440 CE – construction of St. Peter in Okki na Esquilinie;
  • 440 CE – erection of the Lateran Baptistery and construction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Lucina;
  • 442 CE – the earthquake in Rome;
  • 452 CE – Attila near Rome;
  • 455 CE – Vandal invasion of Genesaric, June 2 – Vandals conquered Rome, city was plundered for 14 days;
  • 472 CE – Rome was taken over by Ricimer;
  • 476 CE – Fall of the Western Roman Empire – September 4 – Odoacer, commander of German mercenaries in the service of Rome, overthrew Emperor Romulus Augustulus and was proclaimed king by the army;
Sources
  • Jaczynowska Maria, Historia starożytnego Rzymu, Warszawa 1984
  • Solbiati Romano, Wędrówki po starożytności Egipt, Grecja, Rzym

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