Carthage was conquered by the Romans in 146 BCE and destroyed. However, several decades later there was a Roman colony on the site of Carthage, and Julius Caesar in 44 BCE restored its old name.
During the empire, the city flourished as the center of the senate province of Africa Proconsularis, the granary of Rome.
In its decline it became the center of a rapidly spreading Christianity in North Africa.
After the reform of the imperial administration, carried out by Diocletian, the province of Africa Byzacena was separated in its southern part, with its capital in Hadrumetum (modern Sousse).