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Gaius Julius Caesar (grandson of Augustus)

(20 BCE – 24 February 4 CE)

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Gaius Julius Caesar (grandson of Augustus)
Author: Thomas Ihle | Under Creative Commons Attribution License - Share Alike 3.0.

He was born Gaius Vipsanius Agrippa (Gaius Vipsanius Agrippa) in 20 BCE, between August 14 and September 13. After being adopted by Emperor Augustus, he became Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanian (Gaius Iulius Caesar Vipsanianus) and was called Gaius Caesar (Gaius Caesar). Son of Julia – the only daughter of Octavian Augustus and her second husband – Marcus of Agrippa. Grandson of Octavian August.

In 17 BCE along with brother Lucius was adopted by Octavian Augustus. The emperor saw him and his brother Lucius as their heirs. In 5 BCE he was declared an adult, appointed to the senate and recognized as a youth leader (Princeps Iuventutis). Already at that time, he was designated a consul (1 year CE). Then he would visit the eastern provinces and learn to run the affairs of the empire. He left Rome on January 29, 1 BCE. Among the officers escorting him were the historian Welley Paterkulus, Marcus Lollius and Sejan, the future praetorian prefect. Gaius spent the first two years after leaving Rome in Greece, Asia Minor and Egypt. Passing through Judea he did not make a religious sacrifice, for which he was commended by Augustus.

That same year, Gaius married Julia Liwilla, being her first husband. Liwilla was the daughter of Drusus the Elder and Antoni the Younger.

In 1 CE he stood in Syria and took supreme command of the army of the Euphrates in preparation for the expedition to the east. The Parthians, however, decided to negotiate. Gaius met the new Parthian king Phraates V on a small island on the Euphrates (spring 2 CE) and then attacked Armenia. Unfortunately, he was seriously injured during the siege of Artagira (September 9, 2 CE).

He died in Lycia on his way back to Rome on February 21, 4 CE. A year earlier, Gaius’s brother, Lucius, had died. The death of both grandchildren, Octavian, forced him to adopt his stepson Tiberius and choose his successor. In addition, Agrippa’s third son, Postumus Agrippa, was adopted. Tacitus suspected that Livia herself was involved in the deaths of Gaius and Lucius. Gaius was buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus.

Sources
  • Koper Sławomir, Życie prywatne i erotyczne w starożytnej Grecji i Rzymie, Warszawa 1998
  • Krawczuk Aleksander, Poczet cesarzy rzymskich, Warszawa 2004
  • Krawczuk Aleksander, Poczet cesarzowych Rzymu, Warszawa 2001

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