In the 18th book of the Iliad, there is a description of Achilles’ shield, made for him by Hephaestus at the request of the hero’s mother – Tethys. Virgil, the entire “Aeneid” modelled on both epics of Homer (“Iliad” and “Odyssey”), did not fail to include in his work (in book VII) an analogous description of the shield Aeneas. The differences between them illustrate well the different goals and characters of the works of the two poets.
The Roman state existed in practice for XIII centuries, being the power which was impacting the history. Therefore, I decided that I would tell the history of ancient Rome in the articles below, which will not necessarily cover only the Eternal City.
I encourage you to send articles and point out any corrections or inaccuracies.
For centuries, people have tried to find out what the future holds. Hence, it was common to refer to all kinds of fortune-tellers or priests – augur or haruspices who they foretold from the entrails of animals. Special attention was also paid to all kinds of fortune-telling, which, as it was believed, were not a coincidence, but were interfering with the gods.
It is commonly assume that Bacchus was counterpart of Dionysos. But what it actually means? It’s highly not obvious and doesn’t concern only the Dionysos nor even Rome itself, but the essential methodological problems of religious science and history of religion. Were gods identify with each other just like that?
Roman Emperor Julian, called the “Apostate” by Christians, reigned in the years 361-363 CE. He was the greatest of Roman rulers. Living in difficult times, he was able to carry out numerous internal reforms and conduct an active foreign policy. At the same time, he was a lover of ancient Roman deities, which created a conflict with the growing Christianity. What was the religious policy like under the Emperor Julian the Apostate?
We associate a lawyer with a highly rational person, based on irrefutable evidence and facts, respecting the written law. Religion, faith and worship do not go hand in hand with this profession, at least not in terms of judgment, but you should be aware that the lawyers of ancient Rome, known for their activities during the times of the emperor Septimius Severus (by the way, a great lover of law since his childhood), their roots go back to the function of a pontiff, that is, an archaic priest.
An extremely popular and important Roman holiday was Saturnalia, which was a time of universal joy, spending time with family, playing, reconciliation and equality. The poet himself Catullus called them “the best of the days”. Saturnalia was an annual festival honoring the god of agriculture of Saturn, and was celebrated from 17 to 23 December. Originally, Saturnalia only lasted until December 23, but was gradually extended until December 25, when the Sol Invictus was discussed (later ).