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Articles (Politics and events)

The Roman state existed in practice for XIII centuries, being the power which was impacting the history. Therefore, I decided that I would tell the history of ancient Rome in the articles below, which will not necessarily cover only the Eternal City.

I encourage you to send articles and point out any corrections or inaccuracies.

Emperor who was chosen by gods

During the Second Punic War, a new kind of religious belief began to develop among the Romans. One of the types of these beliefs became the cult of living heroes, which were undoubtedly the great Roman commanders. This type of belief was different from the cult of legendary ancestors such as Aeneas or Romulus.

Scipio Africanus the Elder

Zeno and decision of millennium

When delegations from Western Europe arrived in Constantinople in 476, Emperor Zeno was fresh from the civil war that had left him in power for more than a year. The deputies represented two conflicting sides, one demanded the support of Julius Nepos, the overthrown emperor of the west, and the other asked for recognition of Odoacer’s power and granting him the title of patrician. Solomon’s decision of Zeno determined the fate of Europe, so it is worth looking at the geopolitical and dynastic conditions that the emperor had to consider.

Emperor Zeno

Policy of Roman Empire towards Manicheans

In the 3rd century CE, a new syncretic religion – Manichaeism – penetrated the areas of the Roman Empire from the Persian State. Its founder was the prophet Mani, and the doctrine itself combined elements of other religions: Gnosticism, Christianity, Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism and Jainism.

The image of the prophet Mani - the founder of Manichaeism

Western provinces under Augustus

Conquest of Gaul by Caesar in 58-51 BCE was the basis of his military prestige and wealth and facilitated his struggle with Pompey. The newly conquered territories played a key role in the civil war between the two chieftains. The new province (Gallia Commata), exposed to Germanic attacks from across the Rhine, usually had its own garrison, the command of which provided political importance to the Roman generals.

Young Octavian greets the centurion

Gracchi reforms

In the second half of the second century BCE, a crisis was growing in Roman society, caused by rapid changes after the conquests. The incredible territorial development of the Roman state allowed high social groups to increase their wealth at the expense of the poorer strata.

Gracchi brothers

Capture and plunder of Rome by Vandals in 455 CE

Rome! Eternal City! The capital of the world empire and its heart even when Rome was not officially the seat of Roman emperors. Over a thousand-year history of the Roman state, i.e. from 753 BCE (the legendary year of the foundation of the city by Romulus) to 476 CE (the year considered the fall of the Western Roman Empire), the Eternal City was captured and plundered by barbarians three times.

Painting by Karl Bryullov entitled Genseric sacking Rome 455

History of Julio-Claudian dynasty

Thanks to the transformations in Roman administration made by Octavian Augustus during his reign, the Roman empire could enjoy two centuries of relative peace and prosperity, commonly known as Pax Romana – “Roman peace.” Many historians describe the 2nd century CE as the golden age of the empire, but it was not quite a time that would favour everyone, especially when it comes to power.

Julio-Claudian emperors

Propaganda on Roman coins

With the growth of the Roman state and the emergence of real money, the Romans began to see the importance of coins aside from the payment function. The possibility of placing initials and images/symbols on the obverse or reverse allowed politicians and emperors to influence the social masses. After all, every inhabitant of the Roman state wanted money, which was also indirectly a carrier of information and a means of propaganda.

Reverse of a Roman coin showing a she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus

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