Ancient field kilns discovered in western Germany | Photo: EggensteinExca/ R. Sweet
In western Germany, in Paderborn, traces of the presence of Roman troops and a marching camp were confirmed. This is evidenced by the discovery of two field kilns in which bread could be baked. In addition to the furnace, the remains of Roman amphorae for wine were also found.
The ancient field ovens were “figure-eight” pits, dug to a depth of 60-80 cm. The soil at the bottom of the pits is usually orange-red in color, which proves the high temperatures that once prevailed here. The hearths were probably roofed with turf supported on branches, creating an enclosed space that could be used for cooking or baking. According to the researchers, the second semicircle of the “eight” was used to take out food. Oak was most often used for smoking, with an admixture of hazel, ash, willow, or poplar. Elm was sometimes used.
According to the researchers, the ovens date back to the time of military campaigns (15 BCE – 14 CE) during the reign of Octavian Augustus.