Forum Boarium is one of the oldest forums in Rome. It was a market square on the Tiber River, between the Capitoline, Palatine and Aventine hills, close to Circus Maximus. Cattle, from which the name comes, were traded there, as well as fish. Next to it was Forum Olitorium, where vegetables were sold. In addition to intense commercial activity, Forum Boarium also acted as one of the main ports in Rome (Port Tibernius).
Over time, the Temple of Fortune and the Round Temple of Vesta were erected on the Forum Boarium.
In 312 BCE at the Forum Boarium, censor Appius Claudius erected the temple of the Invincible Hercules. In 305 BCE a statue of Hercules and his own temple were placed on the Forum. In addition, several other iconic buildings were built on the square.
In 264 BCE the first gladiator fights in Rome took place. At the Forum there was also an altar Ara Maxima Herculi, which was the oldest cult and commercial centre at the same time. Until the time of Emperor Constantine the Great an annual bull sacrifice was made here. In special situations that threatened the existence of the Roman state, human sacrifices, always foreigners, were performed on the altar. In 250 BCE a bronze bull statue brought from Aegina stood in front of the altar.
The first Roman bridges were also built at Forum Boarium.