Cilicia from the 4th century BCE tied its fate with Alexander the Great and his successors, from almost all three dynasties in this corner of the world. After the collapse of Alexander’s empire, the island was the subject of disputes between the Seleucids, Ptolemy and Antigonids. Pompey was given extraordinary powers to fight them. About 64 BCE it was brought under Roman rule.
In the reign of Augustus, Cilicia was placed under the authority of the governor of Syria. The province gained full independence only in CE 72, when Vespasian separated it.