When reading about events in the history of the Roman Empire, you sometimes come across geographical names that cannot be intuitively defined on the map of modern countries. Names of lands, such as: Pont, Bithynia, Cilicia, Phrygia, Galatia, Lydia, Pamphilia or Paflagonia are not to be found on the maps of contemporary school geographic atlases.
The Roman state existed in practice for XIII centuries, being the power which was impacting the history. Therefore, I decided that I would tell the history of ancient Rome in the articles below, which will not necessarily cover only the Eternal City.
I encourage you to send articles and point out any corrections or inaccuracies.
In the 18th book of the Iliad, there is a description of Achilles’ shield, made for him by Hephaestus at the request of the hero’s mother – Tethys. Virgil, the entire “Aeneid” modelled on both epics of Homer (“Iliad” and “Odyssey”), did not fail to include in his work (in book VII) an analogous description of the shield Aeneas. The differences between them illustrate well the different goals and characters of the works of the two poets.
For centuries, people have tried to find out what the future holds. Hence, it was common to refer to all kinds of fortune-tellers or priests – augur or haruspices who they foretold from the entrails of animals. Special attention was also paid to all kinds of fortune-telling, which, as it was believed, were not a coincidence, but were interfering with the gods.
The Baltic Sea is not far from the former theatre of Roman military campaigns and research expeditions. How did the Romans imagine its location and coastlines? Have they ever influenced the reservoir over which present Poland lies?
Bulla Felix was the Roman version of Robin Hood. He robbed the rich and helped the poor. His activity was reportedly in the years 205-207 CE, the reign of the emperor Septimius Severus. His group consisted mainly of runaway slaves, imperial liberators, and even former praetorians. At its peak, he had 600 robbers under his command.
The beginnings of Rome were one of the most discussed problems of the second half of the 20th century. Recent years and efforts of scientists in the field of archaeology and the interpretation of historical monuments of ancient Rome have brought a lot of new material and prompted a change of perception, especially when it comes to the chronology of the early history of Rome.
Unlike most civilizations of the ancient East, developing in the valleys of great rivers, the subjugation and use of which was associated with the emergence of great states, the fate of Greece, devoid of this factor, turned out differently.
This question causes us some trouble at the outset. The ancients of course did not know the term “middle class”, which does not mean that there was no social group situated between the social elite and the urban poor. However, its definition is not easy.
After the death of Alexander Severus in 235 CE, the last member of the Syrian dynasty, The Roman Empire experienced an economic and political crisis. It was adopted as the “crisis of the third century” and lasted until the rule of Diocletian in 284 CE. At this time, the Roman Empire, constantly destabilized by its internal struggle for power it had to defend its borders against attacks by neighbouring peoples and states.
Golden glass – this is the name used to describe the parts of the dishes (bowls, plates, cups, etc.), most often they were bottoms or their walls, and they were small works of art in themselves, assuming an oval or round shape. The technique of making them was based on placing gold leaves decorated with a pattern, often with an inscription, between two panes of glass, which later became part of the dishes when the edges were heated.