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Roman god Jupiter
Author: Marcus Cartwright

Jupiter (Iuppiter), the god of light and sky, is equivalent to the Greek Zeus. He was the most powerful god in the pantheon. Son of Saturn and Opsy, husband of Junons. Together with her and Minerva, they formed a triad of state deities, the so-called Capitoline Trinity dedicated to the temple on Capitoline Hill.

The cult of the Best and Greatest Jupiter (Iupiter Optimus Maximus) dates back to the Etruscan kings and was concentrated in a temple located on the Capitoline Hill in Rome, where he was said to sit with Juno and Minerva. The cult activities were looked after by a priest called flamen Dialis, who was the highest rank in the flamen college.

Initially, Jupiter was the god of atmospheric phenomena, storms, thunder and lightning, but later became the protector of the Roman people and their powerful ally in the fought wars. Jupiter was the subject of competitions held in the Roman circus.

Jupiter has been worshipped under many nicknames: Iuppiter Stator (“the one who stops fleeing troops”), or Iuppiter Victor (“winner”).

  • Kempiński Andrzej, Encyklopedia mitologii ludów indoeuropejskich, Warszawa 2001
  • Schmidt Joël, Słownik mitologii greckiej i rzymskiej, Katowice 1996

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