In 25 BCE Egypt’s prefect Gaius Aelius Gallus began a military expedition to subjugate Rome to the Arab kingdom of Sheba. It was located on the territory of modern Yemen, and therefore was an ideal territory from which to conduct maritime trade with countries on the Indian Peninsula.
The expedition set out from the city of Cleopatris. The Romans marched along the western coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and after reaching the borders of Sheba, they headed east. The expedition had many tactical successes, such as defeating the main Sabi forces at Najran, and capturing a number of cities and forts.
Unfortunately for the Romans, Gallus’ forces began to face supply, logistical and sanitation problems, and this resulted in the strategic failure of the expedition. The benefits of the expedition, on the other hand, were the spoils and the broadening of the horizons of Roman geographic knowledge.