Roman dynasty reigning from 379 to 455 CE. Its founder was Flavius Theodosius.
Flavius Theodosius was a great Roman general who saved Rome from losing Britain by ending the so-called Great Conspiracy in 367-368 CE (Ammianus Marcellinus refers to the conspiracy as barbarica conspiratio).
His son also Flavius Theodosius became the emperor of the Western Roman Empire in 379 CE thus formally initiating a dynasty. In the years 394-395 CE, he managed to reunite the Roman Empire by defeating the usurper Eugenius. He took the name Theodosius I, later called “The Great”.
Theodosius I was succeeded by his sons Honorius in the West and Arcadius in the East of the empire. The House of Theodosius became associated with the Valentinian dynasty when Theodosius I married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I. Their daughter was Galla Placidia.
The last emperor of the West belonging to the Theodosian dynasty was the son of Galla Placidia Valentinian III, while in the East Marcianus, brother-in-law of Theodosius II.
The descendants of the dynasty ruled the Eastern part of the empire in Constantinople until the end of the 6th century CE.
Flavius Theodosius (347 – 395 CE)
An excellent chief. After the defeat of the Romans at Adrianople in 378 CE. appointed by the emperor Gratian co-ruler in the eastern part of the empire. By way of agreements and victories, he settled the Goths between the Danube and the Balkans, enlisting them in the Roman army. Married to Flacilia, he had sons Arcadius and Honorius and a daughter Pulcheria.
In the struggle for power in the western part of the empire, he supported his brother-in-law Valentinian II against Maximus and won in 388 CE. After the death of Valentinian, he defeated the usurper Eugene and proclaimed his minor son Honorius the ruler of the western empire.
He issued an edict in 381 CE recognizing Christianity as the dominant religion. In 392 CE forbade the followers of other religions to practice their religion.
Theodosius was the last ruler of the entire Roman Empire.
Flavius Arcadius (377 or 378 – 408 CE)
In 383 CE he received the title Augusta and thus became co-ruler of the empire. From 395 CE ruled the eastern part of the Roman Empire while his brother ruled the western part. On the order of Theodosius, Stilicho was the guardian of the young emperor.
He was an incompetent ruler. He was under the influence of his wife and his ministers – first Rufinus, then Eutropius and Anthemius. During his reign, the destructive invasions of the Roman Empire by the Huns and Visigoths took place.
In 399 CE as a result of Gildon’s rebellion, the Eastern Roman Empire lost its influence in the province of Africa.
Flavius Augustus Honorius (384 – 423 CE)
In 393 CE he received the title Augusta and thus became co-ruler of the empire. He became emperor at the age of 10 and together with his brother Arcadius divided the empire into western and eastern parts, thus he became the Western Roman Emperor. Honorius’ guardian was general Stilicho, who over time gained enormous influence at the court. Stilicho, however, fell out of favour over time and was murdered in 408 CE.
In 402 CE moved the capital of the Western Empire to Ravenna. He waged wars with numerous usurpers to the title of emperor. During his reign, in 410 CE, Rome was invaded for the first time in 800 years by barbarians led by Alaric.
Flavius Theodosius (401 – 450 CE)
He married Faustina the Elder and was the father of Faustyna the Younger, adopted Marcus Aurelius and married him to Faustyna the Younger. He himself was adopted by Hadrian.
Eastern Roman Emperor; during his reign there were religious disputes on religious and theological grounds.
Diplomatic efforts were made to avert the danger from the Huns. In the years 412–439 CE erected the so-called Theodosian Wall, west of the Constantine Wall, which made Constantinople the largest and most powerful fortress in the world at that time.
In the years 421-422 CE, he fought against the Persian Sassanid Empire, and in 423, after the death of his uncle Honorius, he entered into a conflict with the Western Roman Empire, supporting the claim to the throne of his aunt Gaul Placidia. The dispute ended with the victory of Theodosius, who overthrew in 425 CE John, and installed Galli’s son, Valentinian III, on the western throne.
Biography of Theodosius II
Caesar Flavius Marcianus Augustus (392 – 457 CE)
The Eastern Roman emperor, successfully fought Attila, the ruler of the Huns, and in 456 CE successfully repulsed the invasions of Arab nomads.
The ruler and his wife patronized the Council of Chalcedon in 451 CE and the construction of the Monastery of Saint Maron in Syria. In 453 CE the imperial army restored order in Jerusalem, where the widow of Theodosius II – Athena Eudocia, led to the outbreak of the monophysite revolt and banished bishop Juvenal.
In 457 CE the emperor died, possibly of gangrene.
Biography of Marcianus
Genealogy of Theodosian dynasty (Stemmata)
- Flavius Theodosius and Thermantia
- Theodosius I
- Union of Theodosius I and Aelia Flacylla
- Arcadius. He married Aelia Eudokia.
- Honorius. He married Maria the first time and Thermantia the second time.
- Union of Theodosius I and Galli. She was the daughter of Valentinian I and Justina.
- Galla Placidia. She married Atalufa, and then Constantius III.
- The relationship between Arcadius and Aelia Eudocia
- Theodosius II. He married Athena Eudocia.
- Aelia Pulcheria. She married Marcianus.
- Union of Galla Placidia and Atalufa
- Union of Galla Placidia and Constantius III
- Valentinian III. He married his cousin Licinia Eudoxia.
- Honoria. Guaranteed Augusta title. She was supposed to marry Attila, but the relationship did not take place. She married Flavius Bassus Herculanus.
- Union of Theodosius II and Athena Eudocia
- Licinia Eudoxia. She married her cousin Valentinian III for the first time and Petronius Maximus for the second time.
- The relationship between Pulcheria and Marcianus was childless. However, he introduced Marcianus’ daughter from a previous marriage into the dynasty.
- Marcia Euphemia. She married Anthemius.
- Union of Valentinian III and Licinia Eudoxia
- Eudokia. She married Paladius, son of Petronius Maximus, for the first time, and Huneric for the second time.
- Placidia. Married Olybrius.
- The relationship between Marcia Euphemia and Anthemius
- Marcianus. Usurper. He married Leoncia, daughter of Leo I (Byzantine emperor) and Verina.
- Alypia. She married Ricimer.
- Union of Eudokia and Huneric
- Union of Placidia and Olybrius
- Ania Juliana. She married Areobindus.
- Relationship of Anicia Juliana and Areobindus
- Olybrius. He married Irene, niece of Anastasius I.
- Olybrius and Irene’s relationship
- Try. She married Probus.
- Proba and Probus Association
- Juliana. She married Anastasius.
- Relationship of Juliana and Anastasius
- Honorius. He married Maria.
- Relationship of Honorius and Maria
- Serena. She married Stilicho.
- Serena and Stilicho’s relationship
- Maria. She married Honorius.
- Thermantia. She married Honorius.