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Articles

The Roman state existed in practice for XIII centuries, being the power which was impacting the history. Therefore, I decided that I would tell the history of ancient Rome in the articles below, which will not necessarily cover only the Eternal City.

I encourage you to send articles and point out any corrections or inaccuracies.

Religious policy of emperor Julian the Apostate

Roman Emperor Julian, called the “Apostate” by Christians, reigned in the years 361-363 CE. He was the greatest of Roman rulers. Living in difficult times, he was able to carry out numerous internal reforms and conduct an active foreign policy. At the same time, he was a lover of ancient Roman deities, which created a conflict with the growing Christianity. What was the religious policy like under the Emperor Julian the Apostate?

Sculpture of a priest; so far it was considered the image of Julian

Did Roman legionnaires suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder?

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that occurs after intense stress (caused by a traumatic event, life-threatening, or killing another person) and which is not assimilable by the individual. Could Roman soldiers fighting in antiquity suffer from such post-traumatic stress?

The fight of the Romans with the barbarians

Case of Publius Sestius

In the final period of the existence of the Roman Republic, violence became an integral part of politics. In the period under discussion, it was mainly the responsibility of Publius Clodius and Titus Milo. However, apart from them, another politician, Publius Sestius, also played a role in the fighting in the streets.

Death of Clodius

“Barbarians” – what is true and what is fiction?

Recently, the latest production of Netflix on the subject of ancient Rome appeared – “Barbarians”, which certainly encouraged many to watch, and me personally to buy access to the Netflix platform. Was it worth it and is the plot consistent with the historical truth? What will we find in the six episodes of the series?

Barbarians from Netflix

Legal status, recruitment, service, relations of soldiers in Roman army

The Roman army of the early empire is still considered to be the unrivalled role model in terms of quality, discipline and efficiency. The aim of the article is to show what the Roman army looked like from the inside: what the legal status of soldiers was; what the recruitment and training process and the service itself looked like; and, above all, what relations prevailed in the units between comrades in arms.

Roman soldiers on the march

Cicero and his thought

The works of the eminent Roman speaker, politician and philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3, 106 – December 7, 43 BCE) are undoubtedly an icon of an ancient culture that laid the foundations our civilization in terms of legal, moral and social.

Bust of Cicero from the 19th century. It is in the collection of the Myślewicki Palace in Warsaw

City walls – a lesser-known face of Pompeii

The city walls of Pompeii were not built by the Romans, but by a local Italic people, an Osco-Samnite population, long before the formal incorporation of the city into the Roman state after the Social War (1st century BC). During this war, the Samnite fortifications allowed Pompeii to resist – perhaps with success – the legions of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. What did the fortifications look like and what do we know about their centuries-old history?

Tower XI and the city wall in Pompeii

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