Pax romana literally meaning “Roman Peace” was a concept for the state of peace existing inside and outside the Roman state. This term literally refers to the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, when the territorial range was the largest and the military expansion of Rome was kept to a minimum. There were no major state unrest and the power was stable.
Roman peace was a political slogan during civil wars (the fall of the republic, the end of the 1st century BCE). It was introduced after the civil wars in Rome that fought for power in the republic. The term was coined by Emperor Octavian Augustus, who in 27 BCE he became the princeps and sole ruler of the empire after years of civil wars. For this reason, Pax Romana is sometimes referred to as Pax Augusta. Pax Romana was a fundamental element of the political ideology of Octavian Augustus’ rule. The peace lasted about 207 years, from 27 BCE until 180 CE, that is, until the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Pax Romana began after Octavian August’s victory over Marcus Antony in the battle of Actium in 27 BCE Then August became princeps and the so-called “first citizen”. Since there had previously been no precedent for one man to officially be in full power, Augustus decided on the initial rule of the military “junta”, important figures led by himself. The situation in which the most important political and military figures of Rome were bound by an alliance prevented the outbreak of another civil war. It should be noted that the “Roman peace” was not immediate, right after the victory over Antony. Fighting continued in Spain and the Alps. However, despite this fact, Augustus closed the gates of Janus in Rome (three times), which meant the end of hostilities in the Roman tradition. It was a kind of celebration of peace. The first time August closed the gate in 29 BCE, the second in 25 BCE, and the third time is believed to be in 13 BCE, when the Senate commissioned the construction of the “Altar of Peace” on June 4 (Ara Pacis). This building was erected in honour of the return of Augustus and Agrippa from the successful pacification campaign of the rebel provinces, thus sealing peace in Rome.
[ramka_ze_zdjejem img=”25281″ imgw=”500″ alt=”Pax Romana” float=”center”]The Roman Empire in its “golden times”, during the reign of Emperor Trajan, in 117 CE At that time, people talked about Pax Romana.[/ramka_ze_zdjeciem]
The said Altar of Peace (Ara Pacis Augustae) was erected in 9 CE in Rome. The reliefs depict Octavian Augustus and his family, which was also supposed to confirm the divinity of the Julian family and their origin in the myth of Romulus.