Forum of Caesar (Forum Iulium) was the first of the imperial forums. The first plans appeared in 54 BCE. Caesar used the first three years to buy land for the construction of such a huge building. So the actual work did not start until 51 BCE.
Caesar used the loot obtained during the Gallic War for the construction. The forum was built on a rectangular plan with dimensions of 160 by 75 m. At the wall of one of the shorter sides of the forum, there was the Temple of Venus the Mother (Venus Genetrix). Caesar vowed to erect this temple after the victorious battle of Pharsalus of Pompey in 48 BCE. With a colonnade on the sides and a portico with a double row of columns, it was decorated with paintings by Timomachos of Byzantium. The temple was set on a high podium. In the cella, there was a statue of the goddess, protector of the Julius family. A statue of Cleopatra was placed next to it. The construction of the temple was completed by Augustus. Among the many sculptures, there is a statue of Caesar in armour and his favourite horse, placed in front of the temple. A statue of Caesar was erected in the middle of the square. The forum square was surrounded by small shops (tabernae).
Conservation sites were carried out during the reign of Domitian, while a thorough renovation takes place during the reign of Trajan in 108-113 when the Forum was officially reopened together with the Trajan’s Forum. The work enriched the Forum with the Basilica of Argentaria located at its northwestern end, where financial operations were carried out.